“Dogs understand what some human words mean, according to a study published in the prestigious journal Science. 

In a world-first experiment, academics in Hungary trained 13 dogs to voluntarily lie in an MRI scanner to monitor what happened in their brain when the researchers spoke to them.

They discovered that dogs’ brains process language in a similar way to humans, with the right side dealing with emotion and the left processing meaning.” https://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/dogs-can-understand-human-speech-scientists-say-a7216481.html

An essay on November 2020 Theory of Knowledge (TOK) Essay Prescribed Title #6 needs to look at the relationship between reliability and certainty. This experiment on dog speech has aspects of both. Although the measurements in the experiment may be reliable, to what extent are the conclusions trustworthy?

Also consider the way this experiment is covered by the media and interpreted by readers; these are additional ways that reliability and certainty in the Prescribed Title could be approached.