The Japan Medical Association’s Principles of Medical Ethics:

  1. “The physician should strive to achieve a lifelong dedication to continuing education, to keep abreast of medical knowledge and technology, and to support its progress and development.
  2. The physician should be aware of the dignity and responsibility of his/her occupation and strive to enhance his/her cultural refinement, education, and integrity.
  3. The physician should respect the individuality of his/her patients, treat them with compassion, provide full explanations of all medical treatment, and endeavor to earn the trust of the patient.
  4. The physician should maintain respect for his/her fellow physician, cooperate with medical care personnel and serve the cause of medical care to the best of his/her abilities.
  5. The physician should respect the spirit of public service that characterizes health care, contribute to the development of society while abiding by legal standards and establishing legal order.
  6. The physician will not engage in medical activities for profit-making motives.”

Each of the six points above is quite different and each have different links to the key terms in the prescribed title. Consider the underlying “systemic processes of trial and error” in each of them.