Article: Exam Hell and the Crisis in History Education
“Rote memorization has displaced critical thinking and driven young Japanese students away from the study of history, argues the author, who blames the universities’ own fact-driven entrance examinations for the crisis facing the humanities and social sciences in higher education.” https://www.nippon.com/en/in-depth/a05103/exam-hell-and-the-crisis-in-history-education.html
The process, in this RLE, could be interpreted as the education system and testing system that is focused on rote memorization.
From some students’ perspective, the end result may only be to pass a test while other students do have interest in what they are studying.
On another level, high schools, universities, and the government (which oversees everything) have different processes and different end results that they are aiming for. One of the reasons for the current testing system is the ease of marking. It also allows students of all income levels a chance at success. (Essay-based exams may favor richer students who have more money for private tutors can help students prep for essay questions).